ムクルスラムにおける学校空間―地域空間の理解【研究プロジェクト】/Spatial understanding of school/neighborhood at Mukuru Kwa Njenga


ムクルでは、地区内の約半分の子どもたちがノンフォーマルスクールに就学していると推察され、多くの子どもが学習の機会を得ています。しかしケニアでは、こうした認可を受けない学校の子どももKCPE(Kenya Certificate of Primary Education)の受験資格を得ることができ、Secondary School(高校)に進学する道も開かれています。

Since 2010, we have conducted researches on non-formal schools (mainly operated by local residents, without approval from Ministry of Education) at Mukuru Kwa Njenga and Kwa Reuben, as well as houses and livelihood to understand the neighborhood.

It is presumed that about half of children at Mukuru are studying at non-formal schools, so that these schools are their learning opportunity. In Kenya, pupils of these unapproved schools are also eligible to take the KCPE exam (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education) and continue their education at a secondary school.



For most of residents of informal settlement, it is difficult to find a proper job. Local residents make a living through independent businesses, such as a canteen, a kiosk, and a stall. Non-formal schools can be regarded as one of these businesses. At first, these schools are just like a small educational gathering for some infants in the neighborhood, which is usually held in a single room (about 9 sq. m.) of a rental house. As the number of pupils increases gradually, each gathering develops into more like a school.

As each school develops gradually, each school needs more and more spaces. How do they manage to secure more spaces?



There are various wits and tactics that are unique to informal settlements. Looking at each case of land acquisition and classroom construction, the important thing is to apply specific methods to utilize small investment, protect vulnerable land rights, and secure space in the congested neighborhood.

We try to understand these hidden rules, wits, and tactics, and to make use of the insight for supporting informal schools.